Creation and evolution were historic allies against eternalism. However, Darwinism seemed to undercut cosmological theism and human dignity, and modern reconcilers of evolution and theology have not convinced opponents that they can preserve these concerns. Creationists find divine handiwork in natural order and freedom in human uniqueness. For them, even entropy and continuity of kinds are emblematic of the unity of nature and the needfulness of salvation. Anti-evolutionists impatience and frustration are not well answered by dogmatic or mythicized science. Neither is creation well served by reduction to merely empiric facts. Because creationism and evolutionism rest on the unabstractable categories of contingency and necessity, neither will disappear.
Lenn E. Goodman is professor of philosophy at the University of Hawaii, 2530 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. Madeleine J. Goodman is associate professor of general science and director of the womens studies program at the University of Hawaii, Porteus 722 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822.
Religious Metaphors: Mediators Between Biological and Cultural Evolution that Generate Transcendent Meaning by Earl R. MacCormac
Humans can be described as existing somewhere on a descriptive continuum between the poles expressed by the metaphors humans are machines and humans are animals. Arguments for these metaphors are examined, and the metaphors are rejected as absolute descriptions of humans. After a brief examination of the nature of metaphor, all metaphors are discovered to mediate (interact) between biological and cultural evolution. Contrary to the reductionist program of sociobiologists, religious metaphors that generate transcendent meaning offer a legitimate description of humans.
Earl R. MacCormac is the Charles A. Dana Professor of Philosophy, Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina 28036 and adjunct professor of industrial engineering at North Carolina State University.
Free Will has a Neural Substrate: Critique of Joseph F. Rychlaks Discovering Free Will and Personal Responsibility by Robert B. Glassman
Ably marshalling ideas from theology, philosophy, and neurology, personality theorist Joseph F. Rychlak criticizes mechanistic psychologists neglect of will and responsibility; these human qualities involve dialectically considering alternatives. I disagree with Rychlaks suggestion of fundamental mystery in the minds transcendence of the body and believe transcendent mind is intimately related to biological evolution and the brain. For example, dialectics, seen in simpler forms in lower animals, may require neural inhibition, feedback circuits, and topographic mappings. However, epistemologically speaking, neuroscientists strongly need the human insights of work such as Rychlaks to understand the alternatives, in planning investigation at more microscopic levels.
Robert B. Glassman is associate professor of psychology, Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Illinois 60045. The author thanks Forest Hansen for his critique of an earlier draft of this paper.
The Rebirth of Meaning: A Human Problem by Frederick Sontag
With the rise of the social sciences, it was expected they would replace philosophy in solving practical problems and improving the human condition. Ernest Beckers The Birth and Death of Meaning describes this project to cure humankind, but also points out the failures along the way. Nonetheless, a new psychology, based on a final science of humanity, still can accomplish this task. While Becker admits an incurable religious tendency in human nature, he counts on its being satisfied through a new heroism. However, in light of past failures, it is worthwhile taking another look at religion as a source for the rebirth of meaning.
Frederick Sontag is professor of philosophy, Pomona College, Claremont, California 91711.
Economics, Ecology, Ethics edited by Herman E. Daly, reviewed by Kenna Taylor