Donald MacKay has suggested that the logical concept of complementarity is needed to relate scientific and theological thinking. According to Ian Barbour, this concept should only be used within, not between, disciplines. This article therefore attempts to clarify that contrast from the standpoint of cognitive process. Thinking in terms of complementarity is explicated within a structuralist-genetic, interactive-constructivist, developmental theory of the neo- and post-Piagetian kind, and its role in religious development is indicated. Adolescents complementary views on Creation and on the corresponding scientific accounts serve as an illustration. After further analysis of parallel and circular complementarity, it is shown under which conditions complementarity of science and theology can be better justified and may be potentially more fruitful than is apparent from Barbours or even MacKays considerations.
Ian Barbour • cognition • complementarity • epistemology • intellectual development • logic • Donald MacKay • science and religion • worldviews
Dr. K. Helmut Reich, after twenty-eight years of particle accelerator physics and engineering, chiefly at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, is Research Associate and Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Education at the University of Fribourg (Rte des Fougères, Ch-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland).
Quantum Physics, Philosophy, and the Image of God: Insights from Wolfgang Pauli by K. V. Laurikainen
Nobel Laureate in physics Wolfgang Pauli studied philosophy and the history of ideas intensively, especially in his later years, to form an accurate ontology vis-à-vis quantum theory. Paulis close contacts with the Swiss psychiatrist C. G. Jung gave him special qualifications for also understanding the basic problems of empirical knowledge. After Paulis sudden death in 1958, this work was maintained mainly in his posthumously published correspondence, which so far extends only to 1939. Because Paulis view differs essentially from the direction physics research took after the deaths of the founding fathers of quantum theory, this article attempts to describe the main features in Paulis revolutionary thought, which is based on natures epistemological lesson as revealed by Paulis atomic research. Paulis conclusions have important implications for various issues in Western culture, not least with the limits of science and the relation of science to religion.
atomic physics • complementarity • Copenhagen interpretation • irrationality of reality • metaphysics • probability • quantum theory • repression of the irrational • synchronicity • uncertainty relations • unconscious • veiled reality
K. V. Laurikainen, Professor Emeritus of Elementary Particle Physics at the University of Helsinki, is now at the Research Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 20 C, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland.
Contemporary Evolutionary Theory as a New Heuristic Model for the Socioscientific Method in Biblical Studies by Robert K. Gnuse
Notions of uniform and gradual evolution have been replaced in some circles by biological and paleontological models that postulate that periods of rapid change punctuate long periods of evolutionary stasis. This new theory, called punctuated equilibria (or PE for short), may have implications for paradigms in scholarly disciplines other than the sciences. Whereas old evolutionary models exerted great influence upon historians, sociologists, anthropologists, and students of religion for more than a century, the new model may provide heuristic paradigms for research that correlate more adequately with the current observations of scholars. We therefore provide suggestions for deployment of this new scientific paradigm in history and anthropology. In particular, this model can explain the rise of the Israelite state and the religious ethos in the Hebrew Bible, two major concerns of todays socioscientific study of biblical materials. Thus the possibility of an overarching paradigm for the social sciences is entertained.
biblical monotheism • evolutionary gradualism • heuristic model • Israel • paradigm shift • punctuated equilibria (PE) • sociohistorical analysis of the Bible
Robert Gnuse is an Associate Professor in Religious Studies at Loyola University in New Orleans, LA 70118.
Postcritical Religion and the Latent Freud by R. Melvin Keiser
Although Freud launches a devastating critique of religion, he makes significant contributions to religious maturity. On the manifest level, he attacks religion as illusion; on the latent level, however, he is preoccupied with religion as mystery deep in the psyche. This difference is between religion as critical or as postcritical (Polanyi)—as dualistically split from, or emergent within, the psyche. Postcritical religion appears in Freud as mystery, unity, feeling, meaning, and creative agency. We see why, for Freud, the mother as matrix keeps disappearing and what religious maturity is for honest smallholders on this earth who live within matrix as mystery.
feminism • Freud • maturity • mystery • postcritical religion • psychology
R. Melvin Keiser is Professor of Religious Studies, Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina 27410.
Dialogue on Science, Society, and the Generative Order by David Bohm and Sean Kelly
This article is an edited transcription of two conversations at Birkbeck College, London, in February 1987. Its primary concern is a transdisciplinary consciousness that refuses to comply with the tendency toward reductionism and simplification. Some of the problems the dialogue explores are (1) the notion of order (with particular reference to Bohms recent reflections on the concept of the generative order), (2) the limits of knowledge and the concept of the Absolute, (3) the nature of perceptive or intuitive reason, (4) the relation between matter and mind, and (5) the contemporary global crisis and the possibility of creative evolution.Article abstract.
the Absolute • attention • dialogue • generative order • wholeness
David Bohm is professor of theoretical physics, Birkbeck College, London, and the author of Causality and Chance in Modern Physics, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, and Science, Order, Creativity (with F. David Peat). Sean M. Kelly, who initiated this article and conducted the interview with Dr. Bohm, is Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4.
Ralph Wendell Burhoe: His Life and His Thought: II. Formulating the Vision and Organizing the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science (IRAS) by David R. Breed
This second installment from the authors book-length study of Ralph Wendell Burhoes life and thought details the background of the establishing of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science in 1955 and its intellectual rationale. A group of clergy from the Coming Great Church Conference and scientists who were members of the Committee on Science and Values of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences came together to form the new Institute on Star Island, off the coast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. From the beginning, with the guidance of Burhoe, the chief concern of these scientists and clergy was the need to regenerate a contemporary civilization that was on the brink of danger due to its inability to discipline its own burgeoning scientific and technological prowess. Revitalizing religion was deemed essential to this regeneration of society. Since religion is largely destabilized by science, the major task is to emphasize how contemporary scientific understandings support religious wisdom and accentuate its importance. This task is to be accomplished through a science-based theology which reformulates religious wisdom for a culture that accepts science as the most reliable form of knowledge. This rationale for IRAS also articulates the program to which Burhoe committed himself.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences • Ralph Wendell Burhoe • Coming Great Church • Institute on Religion in an Age of Science (IRAS) • scientific theology • Star Island
David R. Breed is an independent scholar and systems consultant living at 5218 S. Dorchester Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60615.
The Cosmic Blueprint: New Discoveries in Natures Ability to Order the Universe by Paul Davies, reviewed by Fred W. Hallberg
Fred W. Hallberg; Associate Professor of Philosophy; University of Northern Iowa; Cedar Falls
Philosophy of Biology Today by Michael Ruse, But Is It Science? edited by Michael Ruse, and The Darwinian Paradigm: Essays on Its History, Philosophy, and Religious Implications by Michael Ruse, reviewed by David L. Hull