Mapping the terrain of what has been called the wonderful world of religion and science becomes more exciting—and more difficult—with each passing year. As we move into a new Zygon year, the thirty-second, the editors of this journal are increasingly caught up in this excitement. In the previous year, we focused significantly on one particular segment of the terrain, the neurosciences. Volume 32 will be much less specialized, as this first issue of the year bears out.
Moral outrage is a response to the behavior of others, never ones own. It is a response to infringements or transgressions on what people perceive to be the immunities they, or others with whom they identify, can expect on the basis of their rights and privileges and what they understand to be their reasonable expectations regarding the behavior of others. A persons culturally defined social identities and the rights and privileges that go with them in relationships to which those identities can be party make up the contents of that persons social persona and also constitute that persons social territory. Infringements of rights and privileges in the social and symbolic worlds in which humans live are the equivalent of encroachments on territory among animals, and moral outrage can be understood as the human expression of what we perceive as territorial behavior in animals. As emotion, outrage is affected by such clinical processes as displacement, rationalization, projection, and reaction formation. Outrage has an essential role in the maintenance of viable social groups, but it also exacerbates conflict among people who perceive one another as others.
emotion • immunities • morality • moral outrage • rights • territoriality
Ward H. Goodenough, a cultural anthropologist, is University Professor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania.
Psychological Realism, Morality, and Chimpanzees by David Harnden-Warwick
The parsimonious consideration of research into food sharing among chimpanzees suggests that the type of social regulation found among our closest genetic relatives can best be understood as a form of morality. Morality is here defined from a naturalistic perspective as a system in which self-aware individuals interact through socially prescribed, psychologically realistic rules of conduct which provide these individuals with an awareness of how one ought to behave. The empirical markers of morality within chimpanzee communities and the traditional moral traits to which they correspond are (1) self-awareness/agency; (2) calculated reciprocity/obligation; (3) moralistic aggression/blame; and (4) consolation/empathy.
moral selfhood • naturalism • primatology • reciprocity • sociobiology
David Harnden-Warwick is a doctoral student in Emory Universitys Graduate Division of Religion. He can be reached via E-mail (dwarwic @ emory.edu) or through the Ethics and Society Department of the Graduate Division of Religion, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Genes and Human Behavior: The Emerging Paradigm by Allan P. Drew
The physical properties of human beings and other organisms as well as their social behavioral traits are manifestations of both genetic inheritance and environment. Recent behavioral research has indicated that certain characteristics or behaviors—such as schizophrenia, divorce, and homosexuality—are highly heritable and are not governed exclusively by social environment. A balanced view of human behavior includes the effects of social learning as well as of genetically determined behavior. A new paradigm promotes enhanced understanding and acceptance of human diversity, be it cultural, racial, or sexual, and has the potential to unite scientists and theologians by creating common grounds of understanding.
behavior • diversity • genetics • homosexuality • inheritance • sociobiology
Allan P. Drew is Professor of Forest Ecology, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210.
Wisdoms Information: Rereading a Biblical Image in the Light of Some Contemporary Science and Speculation by Paul S. Nancarrow
The biblical image of Wisdom as the power who orders all things well in nature and in human life can be read in the light of contemporary information theory. Some current scientific speculation offers an interpretation of reality as a vast information-processing system, in which informational situations are continuously transformed through algorithmic operations. This interpretation finds a metaphysical counterpart in the distinction between nature natured and nature naturing in the philosophical theology of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This confluence of religious, metaphysical, and scientific imagery suggests a picture of the world in which the processes of nature naturing, human humaning, and God Godding inform and recur in each other.
algorithm • Samuel Taylor Coleridge • information • natura naturans • nature • Wisdom
Paul S.Nancarrowis a Ph.D. student in the Graduate Department of Religion at Vanderbilt University. His address is P.O. Box 267, Sewanee, TN 37375.
The Correspondence between Human Intelligibility and Physical Intelligibility: The View of Jean Ladrière by Kam-lun Edwin Lee
This article seeks to explain the correspondence between human intelligibility and that of the physical world by synthesizing the contributions of Jean Ladrière. Ladrière shows that the objectification function of formal symbolism in mathematics as an artificial language has operative power acquired through algorithm to represent physical reality. In physical theories, mathematics relates to observations through theoretic and empirical languages mutually interacting in a methodological circle, and nonmathematical anticipatory intention guides mathematical algorithmic exploration. Ladrière reasons that mathematics can make the physical world comprehensible because of the presence of a rational principle in both kinds of intelligibility.
correspondence • formalism • intelligibility • Jean Ladrière • linguistic philosophy • rational principle
Kam-lun Edwin Lee is Assistant Professor of Theology at Taosheng Theological Seminary, Taipei, Taiwan. His mailing address is Taosheng Theological Seminary, 112 Hsi An Lane, Chung Ho St., Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan.
The Teachers File
Postmodernism: What One Needs to Know by William Grassie
This essay is an introduction to postmodernism and deconstruction as they relate to the special challenges of scholarship and teaching in the science and religion multidiscipline.
constructionism • deconstructionism • Jacques Derrida • epistemology • feminism • Michel Foucault • Sigmund Freud • hermeneutics • Thomas Kuhn • Emmanuel Levinas • Alisdair MacIntyre • Karl Marx • materialism • metaphor • modernity • postmodernism • poststructuralism • power/knowledge • pragmatism • Paul Ricoeur • science and religion • structuralism
William Grassie is an Assistant Professor in the Intellectual Heritage Program at Temple University and a visiting lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. He may be reached via E-mail at grassie @ voicenet.com, or by mail at P.O. Box 586, Unionville, PA 19375. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this article for class use, with this note: Reprinted from Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science.
Philosophy of Science: What One Needs to Know by Philip Clayton
This introduction to the philosophy of science offers an overview of the major concepts and developments in contemporary theories of science. Strengths and weaknesses of deductive, inductive, and falsificationist models of science are considered. The Received View in the theory of science is contrasted with Kuhns paradigms and Feyerabends anything goes, leading to an examination of the merits of a research program-based approach. After touching on the sociology of science, postmodernism, and the feminist critique, the article concludes with a summary, in six theses, of the implications for religion/science.
deductive models • falsification • inductive models • paradigms • philosophy of science • religion/science parallels • research programs • theories of rationality
Philip Clayton is Associate Professor of Philosophy, California State University, Sonoma, Rohnert Park, CA 94928; E-mail: claytonp @ sonoma.edu. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce this article for class use, with this note: Reprinted from Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science.
Creationism in Twentieth-Century America by Donald W. Dayton
The author surveys and reviews the ten-volume reprint anthology Creationism in Twentieth-Century America. The editor, Ronald L. Numbers, places special emphasis on the Adventist roots of creationism in the work of George McCready Price and provides the documentation to trace the rise of antievolutionist thinking and its evolution into the scientific creationism of the 1960s. The author suggests that Numbers underplays the role of dispensationalism in the shaping of antievolutionist thinking.
antievolutionism • creationism • dispensationalism • eschatology • evolution • fundamentalism • Seventh-Day Adventism
Donald W. Dayton is Professor of Theology and Ethics at Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, 660 East Butterfield Road, Lombard, IL 60148.
This article reviews Creationism in Twentieth Century America: A Ten-Volume Anthology of Documents, 1903-1961, Gen. ed. Ronald L. Numbers.
How Religious Tradition Survives in the World of Science: John Polkinghorne and Norbert Samuelson by James F. Moore
The interaction between religion and science has developed, not only as a curious dialogue with a fascinating history, but now as a full-fledged conversation with recognized scholars and a growing, unique body of literature marking both the growth of the dialogue and the nature of the field. At the same time, the academic world has incorporated a growing sense that scholarship is moving toward a postmodern period of thinking that, among other things, has meant a desire to retrieve and justify a whole set of traditional ways of thinking previously ignored or dismissed. We are fortunate to be able to see in recent work, such as that of John Polkinghorne and Norbert Samuelson, the confluence of these two developments, for these two scholars represent both the growing participants in the religion-science dialogue and the effort to give full justification to the rationality and the applicability of traditional theologies in a technological, scientific world. This article examines the efforts of these two scholars not only to assess the value of their contributions on both fronts but to use their thinking to gain yet another important insight into the future of the religion-science dialogue. The result is that we are amazed, again, at the plurality of possibilities that emerge as both science and theology are considered with respect both for their individual integrity and for the possibilities of dialogue when they are placed side by side.
complementarity • creation theologies • intellectual fit • mind of God • John Polkinghorne • Norbert Samuelson • scientific realism • superlative theories • theism • worldview
James F. Moore is Associate Professor of Theology at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383.
This article reviews The Faith of a Physicist: Reflections of a Bottom-Up Thinker, the Gifford Lectures, 1993-1994 by John Polkinghorne and Judaism and the Doctrine of Creation by Norbert Samuelson.
Are Science and Religion in Conflict? by Fraser Watts
The widely held legend of historical conflict between science and religion cannot be sustained on the basis of research. Different sciences show different relationships to religion; the physical sciences show rapprochement, whereas the human sciences often are antagonistic to religion. Reconciling science and religion by regarding each as applicable to a different domain is rejected in favor of seeing them as complementary perspectives on the same phenomena. The science and theology of human nature represents a fruitful arena for the development of this approach. A key general requirement is the epistemological reconciliation of science and religion.
complementary perspectives • conflict • epistemology • human sciences • reductionism
Fraser Watts is the first Starbridge Lecturer in Theology and Natural Science in the University of Cambridge, where his address is The Divinity School, St. Johns Street, Cambridge, CB2 1TW, United Kingdom.