Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science
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Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science
39 (2), June 2004

Table of Contents

Editorial

June 2004 Editorial by Philip Hefner

Nearly ten years ago, in an address to the American Psychological Association, I argued that religion-and-science is more than a specialized field of thinking; it is part of a larger human search for meaning. I wrote, “When I speak of the search for meaning, I am referring to the effort by men and women to reinstate some sort of congruence between their overarching images of reality, embodying the bases for values and moral behavior, and contemporary knowledge, preeminently scientific knowledge” (Hefner 1996, 309). Furthermore, those of us who are active in this field are accountable to the larger human exploration of meaning.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00573.x

Symposium: Metaphor as a Space for Religion/Science Engagement

Caring for Nature: From Fact to Value, from Respect to Reverence by Holmes Rolston, III

Abstract:
Despite the classical prohibition of moving from fact to value, encounter with the biodiversity and plenitude of being in evolutionary natural history moves us to respect life, even to reverence it. Darwinian accounts are value-laden and necessary for understanding life at the same time that Darwinian theory fails to provide sufficient cause for the historically developing diversity and increasing complexity on Earth. Earth is a providing ground; matter and energy on Earth support life, but distinctive to life is information coded in the genetic molecules that superintends this matter-energy. Life is generated and regenerated in struggle, persists in its perishing. Such life is also a gift; nature is grace. Biologists and theologians join in celebrating and conserving the genesis on Earth, awed in their encounter with this creativity that characterizes our home planet.
Keywords:
environmental conservation • evolutionary natural history • fact/value distinction • genetic information • nature as grace • order versus contingency • respect for nature • reverence for nature
Holmes Rolston, III is University Distinguished Professor and Professor of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. He was Templeton Prize laureate in 2003.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00574.x

Articles

The Sixteen Strivings for God by Steven Reiss

Abstract:
A psychological theory of religious experiences, sensitivity theory, is proposed. Whereas other theories maintain that religious motivation is about a few overarching desires, sensitivity theory provides a multifaceted analysis consistent with the diversity, richness, and individuality of religious experiences. Sixteen basic desires show the psychological foundations of meaningful experience. Each basic desire is embraced by every person, but to different extents. How we prioritize the basic desires expresses our individuality and influences our attraction to various religious images and activities. Each basic desire is associated with a basic goal and a unique joy, such as love, self-worth, relaxation, or strength. We do not seek to experience joys infinitely; we regulate joys, in accordance with our core values, to sixteen balance points (sensitivities) that vary based on individuality. Religions help persons of faith regulate the sixteen basic joys by providing some images that strengthen joyful experiences and others that weaken them. We can strengthen our experience of self-worth, for example, by contemplating God in the image of savior; we can weaken our experience of self-worth by contemplating original sin. The theory of sixteen basic desires is testable scientifically and suggests such philosophical concepts as value-based happiness.
Keywords:
Gordon Allport • Aristotle and psychology • god-images • intrinsic value • meaning of life • means and ends • Reiss Profile • religion and motivation • religion and personality • sensitivity theory of motivation • sixteen basic desires
Steven Reiss is Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry and Director of the Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University, 1581 Dodd Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1296; email: reiss.7 @ osu.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00575.x

Reductionism’s Demise: Cold Comfort by Donald H. Wacome

Abstract:
Nonreductive physicalism, as opposed to reductionism, enjoys wide popularity by virtue of being regarded as comporting with the traditional image of human beings as free and ontologically unique without the difficulties of mind-body dualism. A consideration of reasons, both good and bad, for which reductionism is rejected suggests instead that the move to nonreductive physicalism does nothing to mitigate the implications of a physicalist account of human nature.
Keywords:
freedom • mind-body dualism • nonreductive physicalism • physicalism • reductionism
Donald H. Wacome is Professor of Philosophy, Northwestern College, Orange City, IA 51041; e-mail: wacome @ nwciowa.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00576.x

Emergence, Probability, and Reductionism by Frank E. Budenholzer

Abstract:
Philosopher-theologian Bernard J. F. Lonergan defines emergence as the process in which “otherwise coincidental manifolds of lower conjugate acts invite the higher integration effected by higher conjugate forms” (Insight, [1957] 1992, 477). The meaning and implications of Lonergan’s concept of emergence are considered in the context of the problem of reductionism in the natural sciences. Examples are taken primarily from physics, chemistry, and biology.
Keywords:
emergence • Bernard Lonergan • reductionism • schemes of recurrence
Frank E. Budenholzer is Professor of Chemistry and part-time lecturer in the Department of Philosophy at Fu Jen Catholic University. His mailing address is Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, Hsinchuang 242, Taiwan, ROC; e-mail: chem1003 @ mails.fju.edu.tw.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00577.x

Questions that Shape Our Future

Introduction to the Symposium by Philip Hefner

At a symposium 1-2 May 2003 the Zygon Center for Religion and Science celebrated the inauguration of Antje Jackelén as its director. The symposium marked a transition, the sort of event that is critical in the life of any community. In this case the transition is from the founding generation to the successor generation that will actually establish the character and worthfulness of the Center. Although it is a matter of opinion whether a successful transition indicates that the community has become an institution, there is no question that this event defines an important accomplishment. Transitions are not to be taken for granted; they indicate that the Center’s enterprise is more than a program or the expression of one group’s personal interests and abilities. Through the transition the Center becomes an ongoing spirit, a persisting influence in its world. …
Philip Hefner is Professor Emeritus of systematic theology, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago, IL 60615-5199, and former director of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science; e-mail: p-n-hef @ worldnet.att.net.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00578.x

What we must Accomplish in the coming Decades by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Abstract:
In order to survive as a species and grow in complexity, humanity must adopt a new image of what it means to be human, rediscover a reward system beyond the merely material, and see that young people find joy in challenges and in cooperating with others.
Keywords:
challenge • complexity • cooperation • evolution of consciousness • human responsibility • joy • reward system • social compact
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is Director of the Quality of Life Research Center at the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management, Claremont Graduate University, 1021 North Dartmouth Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711; e-mail: miska @ cgu.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00579.x

Where to Look for Guidance? On the Nature of “Religion and Science” by Willem B. Drees

Abstract:
For moral guidance we human beings may be tempted to turn toward the past (scripture, tradition), toward present science, or toward future consequences. Each of these approaches has strengths and limitations. To address those limitations, we need to consider how these various perspectives can be brought together—and “religion and science” is an area in which this may happen. That makes the question of where to look for guidance potentially a central one for religion and science, setting the agenda differently from apologetic questions with respect to religion or to science. However, “religion and science” does not solve the issues, leading to a single normative perspective; the way that current knowledge is integrated with past wisdom is highly dependent upon ideals that relate to the future. Thus, rather than resolving the need for guidance, the religion-and-science conversation becomes one way of addressing our need for guidance, bringing into the conversation past, present, and future.
Keywords:
axiology • consequences • cosmology • guidance • questions • religion and science
Willem B. Drees holds the chair in philosophy of religion, ethics, and the encyclopedia of theology in the Department of Theology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; e-mail: w.b.drees @ let.leidenuniv.nl, and is president of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology (ESSSAT).
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00580.x

“Writing the Agenda,” Summary and Response to the Panel Participants: V. V. Raman, Grace Wolf-Chase, Ian Barbour, Vítor Westhelle by Ann Milliken Pederson

Abstract:
This essay highlights the basic issues, goals, and questions for the future of ZCRS.
Keywords:
Ian Barbour • borders • consonance • dissonance • imagination • liminality • V. V. Raman • Vítor Westhelle • Grace Wolf-Chase • ZCRS
Ann Milliken Pederson is Professor of Religion, Augustana College, 2001 S. Summit, Sioux Falls, SD 57197.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00581.x

Toward an Ethics of Knowledge by Vítor Westhelle

Abstract:
Modern science is one form of knowledge, demarcated by its time (modernity) and by other “knowledges.” There is a fair amount of clarity as to what does not count as scientific, but there is a twilight zone of knowledges whose scientific status is ambivalent. In this zone the encounter between science and religion takes place. The particular contribution of religion and theology in this encounter is to call for an ethics of knowledge in the epistemological endeavors of science.
Keywords:
epistemic claim • epistemic territory • epochal threshold • ethics of knowledge • knowledges • liminality
Vítor Westhelle is Professor of Systematic Theology at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago, IL 60615-5199.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00582.x

Future Directions for the Zygon Center by Ian G. Barbour

Abstract:
A brief comparison of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences is given. The work and emphases of the two Centers overlap but also differ in significant ways. Without neglecting the physical sciences or the Christian tradition, ZCRS would do well to continue to give high priority to the biological sciences and the dialogue with the major world religions.
Keywords:
biological sciences • CTNS • evolution • physics • world religions • ZCRS
Ian Barbour has retired from Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, where he was Professor of Physics, Professor of Religion, and Bean Professor of Science, Technology and Society; e-mail: ibarbour @ carleton.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00583.x

Toward Understanding Each Other: Bridging Gaps in the Science-and-Religion Dialogue by Grace Wolf-Chase

Abstract:
The high degree of specialization in society and compartmentalization in education have resulted in increasing difficulty in communicating across different fields of study. I propose that these gaps in communication across disciplines must be addressed to ensure a fruitful ongoing science-and-religion dialogue.
Keywords:
compartmentalization • cross-disciplinary communication • disconnect • process-oriented approach
Grace Wolf-Chase is an astronomer at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago and a research scientist at the University of Chicago, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637; e-mail: grace @ horta.uchicago.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00584.x

Science and Religion in the Twenty-First Century by Varadaraja V. Raman

Abstract:
To achieve peace on our planet we must bridge the gap not only between science and religion but also among faith traditions. Accepting the doctrine of multiple paths can reduce interreligious tensions. Every view of the Divine is partial, every faith system rests upon supreme spiritual experiences, and each one provides fulfillment in the yearning to connect with the Cosmic Mystery.
Keywords:
Cosmic Mystery • doctrine of multiple paths • interreligious tensions • religious pluralism
Varadaraja V. Raman is Emeritus Professor, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623; e-mail: vvrsps @ rit.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00585.x

Concluding Dialogue: Challenging the Past, Grasping the Future by Antje Jackelén and Philip Hefner

Abstract:
A dialogue between the outgoing and incoming directors of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science took place as part of the inaugural symposium. In their conversation they speak of the past and present challenges and goals of the Center, outline what is foremost in their minds, and offer glimpses into what they see as the Center’s priorities for future work.
Keywords:
continuous reform • dialogue • diapraxis • feminism • hermeneutics • postmodernism • science and religion • yoking • ZCRS
Antje Jackelén is Associate Professor of Systematic Theology/Religion and Science at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago, IL 60615-5199, and director of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science; e-mail: ajackele @ lstc.edu. Philip Hefner is Professor Emeritus of Systematic Theology at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago, IL 60615-5199, and former director of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science; e-mail: p-n-hef @ worldnet.att.net.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00586.x

“The End of all our Exploring” in Science and Theology by Arthur Peacocke

Abstract:
The present malaise of religion—and of theology, its intellectual formulation—in Western society is analyzed, with some personal references, especially with respect to its history in the United Kingdom and the United States. The need for a more open theology that takes account of scientific perspectives is urged. An indication of the understandings of God and of God’s relation to the world which result from an exploration starting from scientific perspectives is expounded together with their fruitful relation to some traditional themes. The implications of this for the future of theology are suggested, not least in relation to the new phase, beginning in 2003, of the development of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science. In a concluding reflection the hope is expressed that the shared global experience and perspectives generated by the sciences might form a more common and acceptable starting point than hitherto for the exploration towards God of the seekers of many religious traditions and of none.
Keywords:
Ian Barbour • Ralph Burhoe • co-creating creatures/created co-creators • T. S. Eliot • energies of God • evolutionary epic • Genesis for the third millennium • Philip Hefner • immanence • inference to the best explanation • Antje Jackelén • New Testament scholarship • open theology • panentheism • postmodernism • sociological surveys • special divine action • theistic naturalism • Ultimate Reality • Wisdom of God • Word (Logos) of God
Arthur Peacocke is the former Director of the Ian Ramsey Centre, Theology Faculty, University of Oxford, England, and a former Dean of Clare College, Cambridge, England. His address is Exeter College, Oxford OX1 3DP, England, U.K.; e-mail: arthur.peacocke @ theology.oxford.ac.uk.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00587.x

Toward a Theology of Disease: HIV/AIDS and Religion/Science

Introduction to the Symposium by James F. Moore

Abstract:
The articles in this section were presented at the conference “Toward a Theology of Disease” sponsored by the Zygon Center in October, 2002. This was a second conference designed to address the question of what the science-religion dialogue could contribute to the larger discussion of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. The conference brought a wide range of perspectives to this question from different religious traditions. I draw them together here around the idea that Philip Hefner introduced in his keynote address: our fragmented experience of the world. The notion of fragmentation opens the door for both a recognition of several possible approaches to building a theology of disease and the pluralism of religious traditions, as well as providing a framework for integrating our full awareness that HIV/AIDS is a problem without solutions and requiring a level of humility in posing any real answers. The essays clearly suggest that the question remains perplexing but that our efforts do show that a multifaith, multidisciplinary religion-science dialogue can contribute significantly to the larger discussion.
Keywords:
disease • fragmentation • Philip Hefner • HIV/AIDS • stigmatization
James F. Moore is Professor in the Department of Theology at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383; e-mail: James.Moore @ valpo.edu. He is director of interfaith programs at the Zygon Center for Religion and Science in Chicago.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00588.x

A Pandemic of Terror and Terror of a Pandemic: American Cultural Responses to HIV/AIDS and Bioterrorism by Barbara Ann Strassberg

Abstract:
The cultural construction of American societal responses to the HIV/AIDS pandemic and terrorism is addressed. The use of metaphors of war, survival, extinction, and of those related to God in public narratives is analyzed. Issues of gender, sexuality, money, and power are also discussed within the context of the religion-science dialogue. Suggestions are made about a possibility for a global ethic of survival based on an ethic of care.
Keywords:
ethics • gender • God • HIV/AIDS • pandemics • power • sexuality • survival • terrorism • war
Barbara Ann Strassberg is Professor of Sociology at Aurora University, 327 S. Gladstone, Aurora, IL 60506; e-mail: bstrass @ aurora.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00589.x

AIDS: Globalization and Its Discontents by Mary E. Hunt

Abstract:
HIV/AIDS has changed from a disease of white gay men in the United States to a pandemic that largely involves women and dependent children in developing countries. Many theologies of disease are necessary to cope with the variety of expressions of this pandemic. Christian theo-ethical reflection on HIV/AIDS has been largely focused on sexual ethics, with uneven and mainly unhelpful results. Among the ethical issues that shape future useful conversations are globalized economics and resource sharing, the morality and economics of the pharmaceutical industry, and the need for sex education and access to reproductive choice. Considering such issues in international, interreligious, multiscientific contexts is a concrete next step for the religion-and-science dialogue. It will put the powerful tools of both fields to the service of the common good.
Keywords:
globalization • HIV/AIDS • religious pluralism • reproductive health care • sexual ethics • theo-ethical questions • theologies of disease, transgender persons
Mary E. Hunt is co-director of the Women’s Alliance for Theology, Ethics and Ritual (WATER), 8035 13th Street, Silver Spring, MD 20190; e-mail: mhunt @ hers.com.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00590.x

The New Biology and its Impact in Biomedical Strategies Against HIV/AIDS by Gayle E. Woloschak

Abstract:
The sequencing of the human genome and the initiation of the structural genomics projects have ushered in a new age of biology that involves multi-lab, high-cost projects with broad task-oriented goals rather than the more conventional hypothesis-driven approach of the past. The new biology has led to the development of new sets of tools for the scientist to use in the quest to solve mysteries of human disease, biomolecular structure-function relationships, and other burning biological questions. Nevertheless, the impact of the new biology on the field of AIDS investigation has been minimal, predominantly because many of the tools in the HIV field of study were developed before the full advance of the new biology was felt in the biomedical community. Many of the high-cost megaprojects that involve large technological advances and are marketed as projects of promise to the biomedical community are not likely to significantly impact the field of HIV/AIDS research and cannot serve as a substitute for direct funding to the HIV/AIDS scientists working for vaccine development, an understanding of mechanisms of disease causation, and new tools for therapeutic intervention.
Keywords:
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • AIDS and ethics • AIDS and scientific inquiry • ethics and decision making in AIDS patients • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Gayle E. Woloschak is a professor in the Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611; e-mail: gwoloschak @ northwestern.edu, and director of the Epic of Creation Lecture Series at the Zygon Center for Religion and Science.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00591.x

The Necessity for a Theology of Disease: Reflections on Totalities and Fragments by Philip Hefner

Abstract:
Our ideas of disease try to explain it, and they aim at facilitating cures. In the process, they become entwined in sociocultural networks that have totalizing effects. Disease, however, counters this totalizing effect by revealing to us that our lives are fragments. Unless we engage this fragment character of disease and of our lives, we cannot properly understand disease or deal with it. HIV/AIDS clarifies these issues in an extraordinarily powerful fashion. Medical, legal, commercial, political, and institutional approaches to disease overlook the fragment character of disease in favor of totalizing worldviews. A theology of disease is necessary in order to maintain the focus on fragments. Unless we recognize this fragment character, we do not really understand our lives, and we do not really understand either disease or healing.
Keywords:
disease • fragment • HIV/AIDS • medicalizing • Ann Pederson • Robert Potter • totalizing
Philip Hefner is Professor Emeritus of systematic theology, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1100 East 55th Street, Chicago, IL 60615-5199, and former director of the Zygon Center for Religion and Science; e-mail: p-n-hef @ worldnet.att.net.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00592.x

The Passion to Heal: A Theological Pastoral Approach to HIV/AIDS by Joseph A. Edelheit

Abstract:
The global pandemic of HIV/AIDS is the most significant challenge of our time. The ongoing conversation between religion and science comes to a critical juncture in this pandemic. The global community has not yet found a vaccine or cure for this virulent virus, which will likely claim five million more lives in the coming year. The global statistics challenge even the most sophisticated imagination, with projections in the tens of millions of people dead, orphaned children, and many more living in various stages of incapacitation or diminished lives. There is a common prophetic religious imperative among Western faith communities that urgently requires both science and religion to respond. Both disciplines define their scope and purpose as universal, and the global pandemic provides a significant challenge to that universal claim. Regardless of the many differences among the nations and peoples challenged by this pandemic, there is a common moral foundation to which the Western religious and scientific traditions must respond. Religion and science cannot deny their respective social responsibilities by claiming the role of neutral bystander. There are several critical ethical choices to be made in response to the pandemic, and the disciplines of religion and science are critical in formulating those choices.
Keywords:
biblical prophetic imperative • ethical challenges • global HIV/AIDS pandemic • Abraham J. Heschel • pastoral theological responses to global HIV/AIDS • prophetic responsibility • religion-science conversations
Joseph A. Edelheit is Director of Jewish Studies at St. Cloud State University, 720 4th Ave S., St. Cloud, MN 56301-4498; e-mail: jaedelheit @ stcloudstate.edu.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00593.x

Is there None Left to Say Anything? by James F. Moore

Abstract:
Remarks made by Lutheran leaders in Africa indicate that the churches have not been responding to the crisis of the HIV/AIDS pandemic sufficiently. In this essay I ask how the churches would be better prepared to act and also, more broadly, how the churches act to begin with. The dialogue between religion and science can assist us with both tasks as we consider the challenge of HIV/AIDS as a focus for this dialogue. First, analysis by social scientists can uncover what problems face any effort to motivate churches to act—and, for that matter, any individual member of a church group. I argue, further, that we can discover the difficulties associated with producing action by religious communities by looking not at abstract theological ideas but by investigating the way those ideas are conveyed in worship. I explore the worship patterns of Lutherans to show what sort of view is actually produced by the week-to-week messages of liturgical texts. I contend that a different approach both to worship and to action can be produced by reconsidering our views of reality as seen through the eyes of contemporary science.
Keywords:
compassion • HIV/AIDS • inclusive worship • Martha Nussbaum • stigma • worship
James F. Moore is Professor in the Department of Theology at Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383; e-mail: James.Moore @ valpo.edu. He is director of interfaith programs at the Zygon Center for Religion and Science in Chicago.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00594.x

In Memoriam

Malcolm R. Sutherland, 1916-2003 by Karl E. Peters

Karl E. Peters is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and Religion at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida and coeditor of Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science. His mailing address is 30 Barn Door Hills Road, Granby, CT 06035; e-mail: kpeters909 @ aol.com.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2004.00595.x



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